top of page
Image by Soner Demirtaş

Waddle You Do?
A Guide to Domestic Duck Care

Care Basics

Waddle You Do? A Comprehensive Guide to Domestic Duck Care:

Welcome, budding duck parent! If you're reading this, it's safe to assume you're planning to enter the delightful world of duck-rearing, or perhaps you already have a few feathered friends quacking around in your backyard. Either way, we are thrilled to waddle alongside you on this journey. This guide aims to give you the most thorough, beginner-friendly advice on caring for your domestic ducks. Let's dive right in!


First, your ducks need a safe and secure place to call home. Duck houses or coops should protect from predators and the elements. Here's what you need to know:


- Space: Ducks need about 4 square feet of space per duck inside the coop and 10 square feet outside for roaming around.

- Ventilation: Ensure the coop is well-ventilated to prevent respiratory issues and to keep it dry.


- Protection: The coop should be predator-proof. A sturdy fence that extends a foot or two underground can keep predators from digging in.


- Flooding: Ducks love water but don't want to live in it. Make sure their living area doesn't flood.


- Floor Type: Ducks do not perch, so the entire floor of the coop is their living space. It's best to use bedding that is easy to clean, such as straw or wood shavings. The bedding should be replaced regularly to maintain hygiene.


- Access to Water: Ducks need access to water, not just for drinking, but also for their natural behavior like cleaning themselves. Remember, however, to keep the sleeping area dry. 


- Night Shelter: Ducks must be enclosed at night with a door to protect them from predators. 


- Location: The coop should ideally be quiet and shaded. It should be far from heavy traffic to avoid stressing the ducks and keep them safe from accidents.

- Comfort: Ducks are waterfowl and do not require roosting bars or nesting boxes, unlike chickens. Instead, they'll appreciate flat, comfortable areas to rest. 

- Temperature: Ducks are hardy and can tolerate cold weather. However, they will appreciate a coop that offers protection from extreme heat and cold. In colder climates, it's crucial to have a well-insulated enclosure.


- Lighting: Ensure the coop has enough natural light during the day. If you want eggs in the winter, you should install a solar or battery-operated light for the winter months when daylight hours are shorter.


- Access: The coop should be easy for cleaning and feeding purposes. It's essential to design your coop with doors that allow you to clean all areas of the coop.

Remember that each breed of duck might have specific requirements, so it's crucial to do breed-specific research. You're setting the foundation for a happy and healthy flock by providing your ducks with the appropriate housing.



Ducks require a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrients. We currently feed pelleted feed with 16% protein and 3% calcium to maintain our adult flock of ducks. They thrive on that so far. However, to become more self-sustainable, we are working on a non-pelleted diet to feed them. However, getting the perfect nutrition is a challenge. 


- Feed Types: Ducks can be fed with pelleted, crumbled, or mashed feed, readily available at most pet and farm supply stores. If you are raising ducklings, they will need starter feed for the first two weeks of their life, and then you can transition them to a grower feed.

- Grit: Ducks with access to foraging will naturally pick up small stones and grit that help them grind down their food in their gizzard, a part of their stomach. However, ducks without access to foraging areas will need grit to be added to their diet.


- Protein: Ducks, especially young ones and laying females need a significant amount of protein in their diet. This can be supplemented with high-protein treats like mealworms and earthworms.


- Calcium: Laying ducks need calcium to produce strong eggshells. Calcium can be supplemented by providing crushed oyster shells in a separate dish.

- Avoid Unhealthy Foods: Certain foods should be avoided altogether, including onions, citrus, salty and sugary foods, popcorn, and artificial additives. Chocolate and avocado are toxic to ducks and should never be included in their diet.


- Foraging: If you have a large enough area, you can plant some duck-friendly plants for them to forage. These include leafy greens, berries, and even edible flowers. However, only use organic plants free from harmful pesticides or fertilizers.


- Hydration: Always ensure your ducks have access to fresh and clean water, as they must drink a lot and use water to clean their beaks and eyes. They also use it to soften their food for easier digestion.

- Feeding Schedule: Feed your ducks at least twice daily - in the morning and evening. A mid-day snack can also be provided.


Adjust the diet according to your ducks' age, health status, and lifestyle. Consult with a veterinarian or an expert in waterfowl if you notice any changes in their eating habits or general behavior. Their dietary needs can also change with seasons and during breeding. Regular monitoring and adjustments can help your ducks get the nutrition they need to thrive.

Handling Ducks

- Approaching Ducks: Approach ducks slowly and in a non-threatening manner. Avoid sudden movements or loud noises that could frighten them. Squatting or sitting to get to their level can also make you seem less intimidating.


- Picking Up Ducks: Use both hands to pick up a duck. One hand should support the duck's chest while the other gently secures the wings to prevent them from flapping. Never lift a duck by its wings or feet, which can cause serious injury.


- Gentle Strokes: If your ducks are comfortable with handling, gentle strokes on the back can be soothing for them. Avoid touching their tail area, as this can be seen as threatening.


- Socialization: Ducks are social creatures, so spending time with them is vital for their mental health. The more time you spend around your ducks, the more they will trust you and tolerate handling when necessary.


- Conditioning: You can condition your ducks to associate handling with positive experiences. Offer treats after handling them so they start associating being held with getting a reward. 


- Handling Ducklings: Extra care should be taken when handling ducklings. They are very delicate and can easily be injured. 


- Regular Health Checks: Routine handling is necessary to check for any signs of illness or injury. During these health checks, look at the ducks' feathers for parasites, check their feet for bumblefoot (a common bacterial infection), and observe their eyes and nostrils for signs of respiratory infections.


- Letting Go: When it's time to let the duck down, lower it gently to the ground. Never drop a duck from a height, even a small one.


Remember, handling should always be done with the utmost care and patience. Some ducks may never become comfortable with being held, and that's okay. The goal is to ensure the experience is as stress-free as possible for the duck when you need to handle them.



- Bonding: Ducks form strong social bonds with each other, so it's not recommended to keep a duck as a solitary pet. If you introduce new ducks to an existing flock, do so slowly and carefully to allow them to form their bonds.


- Hierarchies: Ducks will establish a pecking order within their social group. It's a regular part of their behavior, but you should intervene if it becomes aggressive.


- Social Activities: Ducks enjoy engaging in social activities, like foraging and swimming. Providing them with a safe, duck-friendly environment where they can carry out these behaviors is important for their well-being.


- Communication: Ducks communicate using a range of vocalizations, body movements, and behaviors. Understanding these can help you better meet your ducks' needs and notice if something is wrong.


- Affection: While ducks aren't typically as affectionate as other pets, they may show trust and comfort in your presence by keeping close or calmly resting near you. 


- Play: Ducks have been known to play with toys and enjoy mentally stimulating activities. Providing them with safe toys or objects to interact with can benefit their well-being.


- Grooming: Ducks often engage in communal grooming activities. This helps them keep their feathers in top shape and strengthens social bonds.


- Acclimatizing to Humans: With regular gentle interaction, ducks can become accustomed to human presence and even become friendly. Remember to respect their boundaries and be patient, as forced interaction can lead to stress.


- Quacking: Female ducks (hens) quack more than male ducks (drakes), who tend to be quieter.


- Preening: Ducks spend much time preening their feathers to keep them waterproof.


- Mating Behavior: Ducks have a unique mating behavior, with drakes often being quite assertive. Make sure you have a balanced male-to-female ratio to prevent over-mating.


Despite our best efforts, our feathered friends can sometimes fall ill. Here are a few common duck diseases and their treatments:


1. Bumblefoot:   

Bumblefoot is essentially an abscess on the foot of the duck, typically resulting from a cut or abrasion that gets infected. The treatment usually involves cleaning the wound, applying a topical antibiotic ointment, and then bandaging the foot to prevent further injury or infection. If the infection is severe or persistent, it might require veterinary intervention for surgical removal of the abscess, followed by systemic antibiotics.


2. Sticky Eye: 

Sticky Eye, or Conjunctivitis, in ducks, is a condition that causes the eye to appear swollen and reddish with a possible discharge that might make the eye stick closed. It can occur due to irritation from debris, dust, or infection.

To treat Sticky Eye at home, follow these steps:

  • Warm Saline Rinse: The first step in dealing with Sticky Eye is to clean the affected area. Use a saline solution (a teaspoon of non-iodized salt in a pint of boiled and cooled water is a good ratio). Soak a clean cloth or cotton ball in the solution and gently wipe away any crusty or sticky discharge around the eye.

  • Eye Bath: You can also use the saline solution to give the affected eye a gentle bath. Hold the duck's eyelids open and gently pour the solution over the eye. Be careful not to touch the eye with the container you're using.

  • Regular Cleaning: Repeat these steps a couple of times a day until the eye returns to normal. It's important to keep the area clean to prevent further irritation.

  • Prevent Debris: Ensure the duck's environment is clean and free from dust and debris that could cause further irritation to the eye.

You should seek veterinary advice if the condition doesn't improve or worsens after a few days. The vet may prescribe antibiotic eye drops or ointment to treat the condition if a bacterial infection causes it. It's important to remember not to use any human eye drops or treatments without consulting a vet, as some substances may be harmful to ducks.

Additionally, monitoring your other ducks if one has developed Sticky Eye is essential, as it could indicate an infectious condition that might spread within your flock. Good hygiene practices and regular cleaning of the duck's housing area are necessary to prevent such issues.





3. Prolapsed Vent: 

A prolapsed vent, also known as a prolapsed cloaca, occurs when the lower part of the duck's digestive tract (the vent or cloaca) is pushed outside the body. This condition can be caused by various factors, including straining due to constipation or egg-laying, infections, injuries, or poor diet.


Mild cases can be treated at home, but severe or persistent prolapses require veterinary attention. Here's what you can do at home:


  • Isolate the Duck: Remove the affected duck from the flock to prevent pecking and further damage to the prolapsed area.


  • Clean the Area: Clean the prolapsed vent gently with warm water and mild soap. It's essential to keep the area clean to prevent infection.


  • Lubrication: Gently apply a lubricant such as petroleum jelly or coconut oil to the prolapsed area after cleaning. This can help to keep the tissue moist, reduce swelling, and make it easier to reinsert the organ.


  • Reinsertion: Gently push the prolapsed tissue back into place with clean hands. This can be uncomfortable for the duck, so be as gentle as possible. If you're unable to do this or if the duck is in pain, you should stop and seek veterinary help.


  •  Monitor: Watch the duck closely when the prolapsed organ is back in place. Contact a vet if the prolapse happens again or if the duck seems unwell.


  • Hydration and Nutrition: Ensure the duck stays hydrated and receives appropriate nutrition during recovery. 


Preventative measures include:

  • Providing a well-balanced diet, including sufficient amounts of calcium for egg-laying ducks.

  • Maintaining a healthy weight in your ducks.

  • Ensuring that they have plenty of clean water available at all times.


Remember, a prolapsed vent can be a serious condition even with at-home treatments. If you're uncomfortable treating it yourself or the prolapse reoccurs or doesn't improve quickly, you should consult a vet.


4. Wet Feather: 

Wet feather is a condition in ducks where their feathers become waterlogged, lose their waterproofing abilities, and fail to provide insulation. As a result, the duck may feel cold and become more susceptible to hypothermia or skin infections. This can occur due to poor diet, lack of preening, lack of access to water for preening, poor water quality, or exposure to constant dampness in their environment.


Here are some steps you can take to treat wet feather at home:


  • Improve Diet: A well-balanced diet is crucial for feather health. Your ducks should eat balanced poultry or waterfowl feed that meets all their nutritional requirements. Supplementing with a poultry vitamin mix can sometimes be beneficial.


  • Improve Living Conditions: Keeping your duck's area dry and clean is essential. If the bedding is constantly wet, it must be changed more frequently. 


  • Dry The Duck: If your duck suffers from wet feather, try to help them get dry. You can gently towel dry them, and if they are very chilled, a hairdryer on a low and cool setting can be used. Be very careful not to overheat or burn your duck. 


  • Allow Access to Clean Water: Ducks must bathe in clean water to keep their feathers waterproof. Ensure your ducks have access to a clean water source deep enough to submerge their bodies.


  • Isolate the Affected Duck: If the duck is not improving, is shivering, or showing signs of hypothermia, isolate it and keep it in a warm, dry environment.


  • Vet Check: If the condition persists, consult a vet. Wet feather can sometimes indicate other health problems that need addressing.


Prevention is the best treatment for wet feather. A healthy diet, clean water for preening, and a dry living environment can help prevent this condition. Furthermore, monitoring your ducks regularly for any signs of wet feather is essential, as early intervention can lead to better outcomes.

5. Wry Neck: 

Wry Neck, also known as twisted neck or stargazing, is a condition in ducks where the neck becomes twisted, and the head tilts to one side, upwards, or flips over. This can cause difficulty in eating, drinking, and navigating. It can be caused by several factors, including a vitamin deficiency (specifically Vitamin E and Selenium), head trauma, genetic factors, or as a symptom of other diseases.


Here are the steps for home treatment of Wry Neck:

  • Isolate the Duck: Firstly, isolate the duck from the rest of the flock to prevent injury or bullying from other ducks. Keep the duck in a quiet, stress-free environment.


  • Dietary Supplements: Since Wry Neck can often be caused by Vitamin E and Selenium deficiency, one of the first treatment steps is to supplement the duck's diet. You can add a Vitamin E and Selenium supplement to their feed or provide foods rich in these nutrients, like spinach, broccoli, fish, or eggs. 


  • Provide Supportive Care: Ensure the duck is eating and drinking. You may need to help the duck eat and drink if it is struggling due to its condition. Provide easy access to water and food dishes, and if necessary, gently guide the duck's head to its food and water.


  • Physical Therapy: Some gentle physical therapy may help the duck. This can be as simple as gently and slowly stretching the neck and massaging the muscles. 

  • Veterinary Care: Consult a veterinarian if the condition doesn't improve in a few days. They may be able to prescribe medications or advise further treatment options.


Remember, while mild cases of Wry Neck can be treated at home, a veterinarian should always evaluate more severe cases. Prevention is always better than cure, so a balanced diet with all necessary nutrients will reduce the likelihood of Wry Neck.

6. Impacted Crop: 

An impacted crop is a condition where a duck's crop (a part of the digestive system where food is stored before it is digested) becomes overly full and doesn't empty properly. This can lead to a hard, compacted mass in the crop that can cause discomfort or blockage.


Impaction can be caused by eating long, fibrous material that's hard to digest (like grass or straw), consuming large quantities of food at once, or ingesting foreign objects.

Here's how you can manage this condition at home:


  • Physical Examination: Feel the duck's crop. A healthy crop should feel soft and squishy. If it's hard and enlarged, it may be impacted.


  • Massage: Gently massaging the crop helps break up the impaction. Be gentle and slow, taking care not to stress the duck.


  • Hydration: Providing the duck with plenty of water can help loosen the impaction. Add a little apple cider vinegar to the water, which can sometimes help with digestion.


  • Soft Diet: If the duck is still eating, provide a diet of soft, easy-to-digest foods. Cooked peas, corn, and mashed-up pellets are good options.


  •  Isolate the Duck: To prevent further impactions, it can be helpful to isolate the duck from the rest of the flock, particularly if they're on pasture or have access to long, fibrous material.


  •  Seek Veterinary Attention: If the crop doesn't clear in 24 hours or the duck's condition worsens, seek immediate veterinary attention. A severe impaction can be a serious, life-threatening condition that requires surgical intervention.


Prevention is critical with crop impactions. Ensure your ducks have access to clean water when eating, which helps food pass through the crop. Monitoring what your ducks are eating can also prevent potential issues. Avoid giving ducks long, fibrous materials that can lead to impaction. Regularly check your ducks' crops to catch potential problems early.

7. Arthritis: 

Arthritis is a joint disease that can affect ducks, just like it does in humans. It can lead to pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility in your ducks, affecting their quality of life. Overweight ducks or those who have suffered injuries are more susceptible to arthritis.


Here are some at-home treatments and management strategies you can use:


  • Weight Management: Overweight ducks are more likely to develop arthritis, so make sure your ducks are at a healthy weight. This involves providing a balanced diet and avoiding overfeeding.


  • Exercise: Regular, gentle exercise can help keep joints flexible and strengthen the muscles around the joints. However, don't overdo it, and make sure the activity is low-impact to avoid putting more stress on the joints.


  • Comfortable Living Conditions: Soft bedding can help make your ducks more comfortable and lessen their impact on their joints. Also, ensure that food and water sources are easily accessible so the duck doesn't have to move too much or too quickly.


  • Warmth: Keeping the duck warm can help alleviate the pain. Consider providing a heat lamp for the duck, especially in colder months. However, always ensure safety precautions are taken to prevent fire hazards.


  • Non-prescription Supplements: Some supplements like glucosamine and chondroitin, used in human arthritis treatment, can also be given to ducks. Always consult a vet before adding any supplements to your duck's diet.


  • Gentle Massage: Carefully massaging the affected joints can help relieve stiffness and discomfort. However, this should be done gently to avoid causing more pain or injury.


Remember, these treatments can manage the symptoms of arthritis, but they won't cure it. Always consult a vet if you suspect your duck has arthritis. The vet can confirm the diagnosis and guide you on managing the condition at home or recommend prescription medications or treatments if necessary.

8. Avian Influenza: 

Avian Influenza, also known as bird flu, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects a variety of birds, including ducks. The symptoms can range from mild illness to severe and fatal disease, depending on the strain of the virus. Symptoms may include respiratory signs such as coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, and other signs like reduced egg production, sudden death, swollen head, and blue discoloration of the neck and throat.


Given the severity and infectiousness of this disease, it's essential to take preventative measures:


  • Biosecurity: Preventing the disease from entering your duck flock is the best defense. This includes limiting visitors to your flock, not sharing equipment with other bird owners, and isolating new birds before introducing them to your flock.


  • Vaccination: Vaccination can be an effective preventative measure, although the vaccines do not cover all virus strains. Your vet can provide advice on the best vaccination strategy for your ducks.


If you suspect your ducks have avian influenza, it's crucial to get a confirmed diagnosis from a veterinarian or local agricultural authority. If avian influenza is confirmed, they will guide the following steps, which may include culling the flock to prevent the spread of the disease.


Unfortunately, there is no effective at-home treatment for avian influenza in ducks. Antiviral drugs are generally not recommended for use in poultry due to the risk of creating drug-resistant strains of the virus. Supportive care such as providing a warm environment, and ensuring food and water are accessible, can be offered.

Avian influenza is a reportable disease in many areas due to its potential to spread and cause significant damage to poultry industries and wildlife populations. If you suspect your ducks have avian influenza, contact a veterinarian or local agricultural authority promptly.

9. Botulism: 

Botulism in ducks is a potentially fatal disease caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. This bacteria is found in soil and requires a low-oxygen environment to make the toxin. For ducks, this typically happens when they consume the toxin from decomposing plant material, invertebrates, or in the mud at the bottom of a pond.

The symptoms of botulism in ducks can include paralysis that starts in the legs and spreads to the wings and neck, difficulty breathing, and in severe cases, death. The progression can be rapid, leading to death within hours or slower over several days.

If you suspect your duck has botulism, it's crucial to seek veterinary assistance immediately. If given early enough, a vet can administer an antitoxin to counteract the botulinum toxin.

There is no specific at-home treatment for botulism in ducks. Supportive care can be provided, including ensuring the duck is comfortable, hydrated, and can access food.

Prevention is key in managing the risk of botulism. Here are some strategies:

  • Clean Water Source: Stagnant, warm water can promote the growth of Clostridium botulinum. Provide fresh water and clean the water source regularly.

  • Avoidance of Carcasses and Rotting Vegetation: The bacteria often proliferate in dead animals or rotting plant material. Regularly clean the areas where your ducks live to remove any potential sources of the bacteria.


  • Watch What They Eat: Ducks are opportunistic eaters, but make sure they're not eating anything that could harbor the bacteria. This includes not giving them old or rotting food.


Remember, if you suspect your ducks have botulism, get them to a vet as soon as possible. Botulism is a severe and life-threatening disease, and early intervention is crucial for their survival.

10. Pasteurella Anatipestifer:

Pasteurella Anatipestifer, also known as Riemerella Anatipestifer infection or New Duck Disease, is a bacterial disease that commonly affects ducks, especially in crowded or stressful conditions. The disease can lead to high mortality rates in duck flocks, which is of significant economic importance in commercial duck farming.

Symptoms may vary but often include fever, coughing, difficulty breathing, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and nasal and ocular discharges. The disease can also cause neurological signs like incoordination, twisting of the neck (torticollis), and tremors in severe cases.


Early detection and treatment are vital in controlling the spread and impact of this disease. However, it's important to note that the disease may already be advanced once the symptoms appear.


When it comes to home treatments, supportive care can be offered, which includes:


  • Isolation: Separate sick ducks from healthy ones to prevent the spread of the bacteria.

  • Hydration and Nutrition: Ensure the sick ducks have easy access to fresh water and nutritious food.


  • Clean and Stress-free Environment: Keep the ducks clean to prevent further infections. Reduce stress as much as possible.


Remember, these measures only help manage the symptoms and do not treat the disease itself. Antibiotic treatment is usually required to deal with Pasteurella Anatipestifer infection, and it should be administered under the guidance of a veterinarian.


Preventive measures include maintaining high hygiene standards, not overcrowding your duck housing, and providing a balanced diet. Vaccination against Pasteurella Anatipestifer is also available and can be an effective preventive measure, especially in areas where the disease is prevalent. 


If you suspect an infection, you should immediately consult a veterinarian who can accurately diagnose the condition and guide you on the appropriate treatment.



11. Duck Virus Enteritis: 

Duck Virus Enteritis (DVE), also known as Duck Plague, is a highly contagious and often fatal viral disease primarily affecting ducks, geese, and swans. The disease is caused by the Duck Enteritis Virus (DEV), which can spread rapidly among waterfowl.


Symptoms of Duck Virus Enteritis can vary but often include lethargy, reduced appetite, diarrhea, and sudden death. Other signs might include greenish or blood-stained diarrhea, nasal discharge, and neurological symptoms like incoordination or spasms. Females might also show signs of egg-related problems, like egg-binding or misshapen eggs.


There is no current option for treating Duck Virus Enteritis, so the focus is prevention and supportive care if an outbreak occurs. If you suspect a case of DVE, the following steps should be taken:


  • Isolation: Infected birds should be isolated immediately to prevent the spread of the disease to other birds in the flock. 

  • Supportive Care: Affected birds should be provided with fresh water and nutritious food to help them maintain their strength. 


  • Disinfection: The environment where the infected bird lives should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected to kill the virus and prevent further spread of the disease.


  • Report: If you suspect Duck Virus Enteritis, it's important to report it to your local agriculture or wildlife authority. DVE is a reportable disease in many areas due to its potential to rapidly decimate waterfowl populations.


  •  Consultation with a vet: A veterinarian can guide the next steps and how to manage the outbreak, including possible euthanasia of severely affected birds to prevent their suffering and control the disease.

Prevention is the most effective approach to managing Duck Virus Enteritis. This includes maintaining good hygiene, avoiding overcrowding, and adequately managing new birds. A vaccine is also available for DVE, and your veterinarian can advise you on the appropriate vaccination protocol for your flock.

Remember, if you suspect DVE, it's essential to act quickly due to the highly infectious nature of the disease and its potential to cause high mortality rates.


12. Egg Binding: 

Egg binding is a serious condition when a female duck cannot lay an egg. The egg gets stuck either in the oviduct or the cloaca (the exit point). If not promptly addressed, egg binding can be life-threatening, as the egg can rupture internally, leading to potentially fatal infections.


Symptoms of egg binding may include:


- Straining or repeated squatting as if trying to lay an egg without any result.

- Lethargy, lack of appetite, and showing signs of discomfort.

- The abdomen may look swollen and feel hard to the touch.

- The duck may walk awkwardly, almost like a penguin, due to discomfort.


While a veterinarian is the best option to treat egg binding, there are some steps you can take at home to help a duck that you suspect is egg-bound:


  • Warm Baths: Soaking the duck's lower body in a warm (not hot) bath for 15-20 minutes can help relax the muscles and aid in passing the egg.


  • Lubrication: Lubricate the vent using a safe lubricant such as petroleum jelly. Be very careful not to break the egg during the process.


  • Calcium: A lack of calcium can cause the muscles of the oviduct to function poorly. Giving your duck a calcium supplement can help the muscles contract better to expel the egg.


  • Hydration: Ensure that the duck has access to plenty of water.


While these steps can help, getting her to a veterinarian is critical if the duck does not pass the egg within a few hours or if her condition worsens. The vet may need to manually remove the egg or, in severe cases, perform surgery.


To prevent egg binding:


- Provide a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D3. Calcium is crucial for eggshell formation and muscle contractions, while vitamin D3 helps the body absorb calcium.

- Avoid obesity in your ducks as it increases the risk of egg binding.

- Allow for exercise. Active ducks are less likely to become egg-bound.


Always remember that if you need clarification or if the condition of your duck deteriorates, consult with a veterinarian.

13. Fowl Cholera:

Fowl Cholera, also known as Avian Cholera or Pasteurellosis, is a contagious bacterial disease that affects various bird species, including ducks. It is caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. Fowl Cholera can occur in both acute and chronic forms. The acute form can result in sudden death, while the chronic form can lead to symptoms such as loss of appetite, greenish diarrhea, and swollen joints.


The severity of Fowl Cholera and the speed at which it can decimate a flock makes it essential to consult a veterinarian if you suspect your ducks have contracted this disease. The veterinarian can diagnose the condition and prescribe appropriate antibiotics.


At home, there are several measures you can take to manage a suspected outbreak and provide supportive care:


1. Isolation: If a duck shows signs of Fowl Cholera, separating it from the rest of the flock is crucial to prevent the disease from spreading.


2. Hydration and Nutrition: Provide plenty of fresh water and a balanced diet to help the ducks maintain strength.


3. Clean Environment: Regularly clean and disinfect the duck's living area to reduce the risk of spreading the bacterium. Pay extra attention to cleaning feeding and drinking areas.


4. Report: Fowl Cholera is a reportable disease in many jurisdictions due to its high mortality rate and rapid spread. It's essential to report any suspected cases to your local agricultural authority.


Regarding prevention, maintaining a clean environment and avoiding overcrowding is key. The bacterium can survive in moist environments, so ensuring the ducks' clean and dry environment can help prevent the disease. Vaccination is also available and may be recommended in areas where Fowl Cholera is prevalent or if there have been previous outbreaks.


Remember, while supportive care can be provided at home, Fowl Cholera is a serious disease that requires professional veterinary care. Always consult with a veterinarian if you suspect your ducks are sick.


14. Duck Virus Hepatitis:

Duck Virus Hepatitis (DVH) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease that primarily affects ducklings, especially those under four weeks of age. A type of picornavirus causes it.


Symptoms of Duck Virus Hepatitis can include lethargy, reduced feeding, unsteady gait, opisthotonos (a condition in which the head and tail are bent backward and the back is arched), and sudden death. The disease progresses rapidly and affected ducklings can die within a few hours of the onset of symptoms.


As with most viral diseases, there is no specific treatment for Duck Virus Hepatitis. The focus is mainly on prevention and supportive care. Here's what you can do at home if an outbreak is suspected:


  • Isolation: If a duckling shows symptoms, isolate it immediately to prevent the virus from spreading to others in the flock.


  • Supportive Care: Provide affected ducklings with plenty of clean water and nutritious food to help maintain their strength.


  • Clean and Disinfect: Thoroughly clean and disinfect the environment where the infected duckling was housed. The virus is resistant to many disinfectants, so use one specifically recommended for DVH.


  • Contact a Veterinarian: Since DVH is a severe and potentially fatal disease, it's essential to contact a veterinarian who can guide you on the necessary steps to manage the situation and confirm the diagnosis.


Prevention of DVH relies on suitable biosecurity measures, such as:


- Purchasing ducks from reputable sources.

- Quarantining new ducks before introducing them to your existing flock.

- Regularly cleaning and disinfecting your ducks' environment.


A vaccine is available for Duck Virus Hepatitis and is typically given to ducklings at one day old. Vaccination is especially recommended if there has been a previous outbreak of DVH on your farm or in your region.


Always remember that DVH is a severe disease, and professional veterinary care is necessary to confirm a diagnosis and proper disease management.


15. Parasites, Lice, and Mites: 

Various external parasites, including lice, mites, and fleas, can affect ducks. These pests can cause discomfort, itching, and feather damage and, in severe cases, lead to anemia and other health issues. 


Here are some common external parasites in ducks and their symptoms:


  • Lice: These tiny, flat, six-legged insects live on the skin and feathers. They cause itching and irritation, and ducks may be seen preening excessively. Lice eggs (nits) can often be seen attached to the base of feathers.


  •  Mites: There are several species of mites. Some live on the skin and cause irritation and feather loss. In contrast, others (like the duck mite or "red mite") are bloodsucking parasites that can cause anemia in heavy infestations. Mites are often microscopic but can sometimes be seen as specks on the skin or feathers, or in the case of red mites, in the ducks' housing.


  • Fleas: Fleas can also infest ducks, causing similar symptoms to lice and mites.


Home treatments for these parasites include:


Diatomaceous Earth: This is a non-toxic powder made from fossilized aquatic organisms and is lethal to many external parasites. It can be dusted on the ducks and sprinkled in their environment. 

  • Poultry Dust or Spray: Several commercial products can kill lice, mites, and fleas on poultry. Always follow the product's instructions and ensure it's safe for use on ducks.

  • Cleaning and Disinfection: Regularly cleaning and disinfecting the ducks' environment can help reduce the number of parasites.


  • A Warm Bath: A warm bath can help remove parasites from your ducks. Adding a bit of dish soap can also help.


Prevention is always the best approach, which includes regularly checking your ducks for signs of infestation, maintaining a clean living environment, and providing your ducks with a diet that supports a healthy immune system.

Remember, while mild infestations can often be treated at home, heavy infestations or cases where the duck's health is affected should be seen by a vet. In some cases, prescription medications may be necessary. Always consult a vet if you need clarification.

Ducks for Meat

Content Warning: The following section contains detailed descriptions and steps for processing animals for meat. We understand that this topic may not be comfortable for all readers. If you'd rather not read about these procedures, we recommend you skip this section. Your understanding of animal care and well-being can still be complete without this information. Please proceed according to your comfort level.



Ducks have long been prized for their rich, flavorful meat, and the rise of small-scale poultry farming has only increased their popularity as a culinary mainstay. From casual backyard barbecues to upscale restaurants, the gastronomical possibilities offered by duck meat are vast and intriguing. If you're interested in learning about why ducks should be used for meat and how to process and butcher them, you've come to the right place. 

When it comes to poultry meat, many think of chicken first. However, duck meat provides a delightful alternative. It's rich and hearty, with a distinct taste that sets it apart from other poultry. While chicken is relatively lean, duck meat is characterized by its higher fat content, which gives it a tender, melt-in-your-mouth quality when cooked correctly.

Ducks are also a sustainable source of meat. They are hardy birds that can adapt to various climates and conditions, and their diet primarily consists of easily accessible food sources like insects, grains, and greenery. 

In terms of nutrition, duck meat is a powerhouse. It's high in protein and packed with vitamins and minerals, such as iron, selenium, and B vitamins. The fat in duck meat is mostly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, which are beneficial for heart health. 

Now, let's delve into how to process and butcher ducks for meat. Handling this process with care and respect for the animal is crucial. 

The first step in the processing phase is humane slaughter. There are several methods to ensure the animal's quick and painless death, such as cervical dislocation or using a killing cone and a sharp knife to sever the jugular. It's essential that this is done quickly and accurately to minimize the stress on the bird. 

Once the duck has been slaughtered, it needs to be bled out. This can be done by hanging the bird by its feet for several minutes. 

Next is the scalding process. The purpose of this step is to loosen the feathers for easier plucking. Dip the duck into hot (not boiling) water, around 140 to 150 degrees Fahrenheit, for about a minute, then test if the feathers come out easily. If they do, it's time for plucking. Since ducks are waterproof, you might find it beneficial to use a little dish soap in the scalding water to cut through the duck oils. 

Plucking is a meticulous process. It's best to start from the neck, then move downwards, pulling out the feathers in the direction of growth to avoid tearing the skin. For stubborn pin feathers, a pair of pliers can be handy. 

Once plucked, the duck is ready for evisceration. Starting from the bottom end, make a shallow cut, careful not to pierce the intestines. Reach in and remove the internal organs, making sure to remove the lungs tucked near the spine. Some internal organs, like the heart, liver, and gizzard, are edible and can be set aside for cooking.

The final step in processing the duck is to rinse the body inside and out, checking for any missed feathers or residual organ parts. 

Once processed, the duck can be cut up for cooking. There are many ways to butcher a duck, but a simple method involves separating the bird into breasts, legs, and wings. The remaining carcass, including the neck, can be used to make a flavorful stock.

Processing your own ducks for meat can be an enriching experience, giving you an intimate understanding of the origins of your food. Plus, the culinary rewards of home-processed duck are well worth the effort. Whether you're roasting the whole bird or sautéing the breasts, duck meat provides a complex and satisfying flavor profile. The practice of processing and butchering your own meat encourages sustainability, respect for animal life, and a deeper appreciation for the culinary arts.

bottom of page